Proceedings of the

1990 Clark Fork River Symposium
(Hardcopies available through all Montana University System Libraries
and the Montana State Library)

April 20, 1990
University of Montana
Missoula, Montana

Dr. Vicki Watson
University of Montana
Missoula, Montana

Production Editor:
Joan W. Cook
Montana State University
Bozeman, Montana


Table of Contents

Title Pages
Acknowledgements and Sponsors
Symposium Schedule
Symposium Participants


Symposium Organizer:

 Dr.  Vicki Watson

Sponsors of the Clark Fork River Symposium:

City of Missoula
County of Missoula
Clark Fork Coalition
Montana Academy of Sciences
Montana Power Company
Stone Container
Washington Water Power
Montana University System Water Resources
University of Montana Division of Biological
Sciences and Environmental Studies Program

The organizers of the Symposium wish to gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the following:

Mary Lou Fox, Mary Beth Bishop, Karen Wilson,
Perry Berlind, Jennifer Carey, Judy Reese,
Kevin Armstrong, Murray Carpenter, Paula Yelin
(for their assistance with logistics) and Tom
Aichlemeyer for the tasty Clark Fork Crayfish.

Proceedings Layout, Design, and Production:

Joan W. Cook, Coordinator
Linda Zupan
Suzanne Goodman
(Montana State University, College of 

    Rational, scientific management of the Clark Fork River is critical to maintain and enhance the quality and viability of its natural resources while permitting many different (sometimes conflicting) uses. The Clark Fork is many things to us--the life blood of western Montana, nourishing and uniting the watersheds and communities of our region as our own blood nourishes and unites our bodies. Suffering from the mine wastes, channelization, damming, dewatering, disturbed watersheds and other stresses, the river is a symbol of man's abuse of his environment. Yet, like the Phoenix, it is also a symbol of how a natural system can be healed and regain some of its former vitality. The Clark Fork is also a vast natural laboratory where we investigate the life of a river and its interactions with the systems of man.
    In 1985, growing interest in using scientific research as a basis for rational management of the Clark Fork resulted in the convening of a symposium (Carlson and Bahls, 1985). Between 1985 and 1990 the river was the subject of considerable scientific research and management, hence a second Clark Fork symposium was convened to present and evaluate those efforts and to propose goals and directions for future research and management. Both symposia were well attended by the interested public as well as by scientists and managers. The symposia provided some answers but raised many new questions about this complex natural system. The river will continue to change through natural processes and in response to development and restoration efforts. Hence regular public conferences to update our understanding and to evaluate the effects of our actions are an essential part of managing our river basin.

Vicki Watson, Editor


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Distribution of Trace Metals in Fine-grained Bed Sediments and
Benthic Insects in the Clark Fork River, Montana

Ellen V. Axtmann *, Daniel J. Cain and Samuel N. Luoma, 
U. S. Geological Survey
345 Middlefield Road, M.S. 465,Menlo Park, CA 94025

Nutrient Sources in the Clark Fork River Basin
Gary L. Ingman and Mark A. Kerr, 
Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Water Quality Bureau,  
Cogswell Building, Helena, Montana 59620

Control Of Algal Standing Crop By P And N
In The Clark Fork River

Vicki Watson and Perry Berlind, University of Montana, 
Loren Bahls,
Montana Dept. Health and Environmental Sciences

Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Surveys in the
Clark Fork River, 1986 to 1988.

Daniel L. McGuire, McGuire Consulting, Box 764, Espanola, NM 87532

Determination of Point and Nonpoint Source Toxicity
in the Clark Fork River Basin 
Using the Daphnid, Ceriodaphnia Dubia

DelWayne R. Nimmo, Water Resources Division, National Park Service, 
Affiliated with Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80523,  
Joseph C. Greene, Environmental Research Laboratory, 
Corvallis/ORD, Corvallis, OR 97333 
Loys P. Parrish, Tom Willingham and Glenn J. Rodriguez, 
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
 999 18th Street, Denver, CO 80202, 
Mark A. Kerr, Montana Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, 
Water Quality Bureau, Helena, MT 59620, 
Glenn R. Phillips,  Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks,  
Capitol Station, Helena, MT 59601

Ambient Toxicity Assessments of Clark Fork River
Water-Toxicity Tests and Metals Residues
in Brown Trout Organs

Glenn Phillips and Ron Spoon, 
Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks

Changes in the Benthic Community of Lake Creek, MT,
Resulting from Mine Tailings Contamination

Barry S. Hansen, Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, 
Pablo, MT, 59855

Baseline Hydrologic Monitoring for Mining Projects
Douglas C. Parker, Noranda Minerals Corporation, Missoula, Montana

Economic Valuation of Fisheries: 
Nonmarket Studies in the Clark Fork Basin

John Duffield, Department of Economics,  
University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812

Hazardous Wastes from Large-scale Metal Extraction:
The Clark Fork Waste Complex, MT

Johnnie Moore, Department of Geology, 
University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, 
Samuel N. Luoma, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California

Ultimate Oxygen Demand-An Alternative Method for 
Testing Oxygen Demand in a Sewage Treatment Facility

Mary Beth Bishop, Environmental Studies, University of Montana

Phosphorous Sources in Gold Creek, a Tributary of the
Clark Fork River in Western Montana
Jennifer H. Carey, Environmental Studies, University of Missoula

The Montana Rivers Study: Past, Present and Future
Janet Decker-Hess and Gael Bissell, 
Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Kalispell, Montana, 
Jim Stimson, Montana Natural Resource Recovery Information System,
1515 East Sixth Avenue, Helena, Montana 59620 USA

Blackfoot River Resource Investigations
Mark A. Kerr, Montana Water Quality Bureau

Soluble Reactive Phosphorous Concentrations in the 
Upper Clark Fork River: 
A Study of the Contribution of 2 Nonpoint Sources of Sediment

Scott A. Luchessa, Environmental Studies, University of Montana

A Computer Flow Model of the Missoula Aquifer
Ross D. Miller, University of Montana, Geology Department

Stratigraphy and Chemistry of Metal-Contaminated 
Floodplain Sediments, Upper Clark Fork River Valley

David A. Nimick, University of Montana

Planning a Riverfront Recreational Corridor 
Riverfront Priorities
In Missoula, Montana
Karen Timchak, Land Use Consultant


Symposium Schedule
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Clark Fork River Symposium, April 20, 1990
Mount Sentinel Room, University Center
University of Montana
Missoula, Montana

7:30-8:10am  Registration
8:10-8:20am  Welcome

Physical/Chemical Aspects
8:20am             D. Nimick, USGS--Stratigraphy and Chemistry of Metal-Contaminated Flood Plain Sediments,
                         Upper Clark Fork River.
8:40am             E. Axtmann, USGS--Influence of Tributary Inputs on Distribution of Metals in Bed Sediments of
                         the Clark Fork.
9:00am             D. Cain, USGS--Distribution of Bioavailable Trace Metals in Benthic Insects of the Clark Fork    
9:20am             R. Miller, University of Montana--Modeling the Missoula Aquifer.
9:40am             G. Ingman, Montana Water Quality Buraeu--Nutrient Sources in the Clark Fork Basin.
10-10:20am      BREAK

Biotic Response
10:20am            V. Watson, University of Montana and Loren Bahls, Montana Water Quality Bureau--Control   
                         of Nuisance Algae Growths in the Clark Fork River.   
10:40am            D. McGuire, Montana Water Quality Bureau Consultant--Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Surveys in
                         the Clark Fork River, 1986-1988.
11:00am            D. Nimmo, National Park Service--Determination of Point and Nonpoint Toxicity in the Clark
                         Fork Basin Using the Daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia.
11:20am            G. Phillips and R. Sppon, Montana Dept. Fish, Wildlife and Parks--Ambient Toxicity in the
                         Clark Fork River Water: Bioassays and Metal Residues in Brown Trout Organs.
11:40 am           W. Hadley, Montana Dept. Fish, Wildlife and Parks--Fisheries Studies inthe Upper Clark Fork
Noon-1:00pm    LUNCH

1-3:00pm           POSTER SESSION

Management of Clark Fork Basin
3:00pm             W. Schafer, Schafer & Associates--Geochemistry of Ammended Sulfide Mine Wastes in the
                         Upper Clark Fork Basin.
3:20pm             J. Duffield, University of Montana--Economic Valuation of Fisheries.
3:40pm             D. Parker, Hydometrics--Use and Misuse of Hydrological  Data in the Environmental Assessment
4:00pm             J. Moore, University of Montana, and S. Luoma, US Geological Survey--Management of        
                         Hazardous Wastes from Large-scale Metal Extraction--Clark Fork Complex, Mt.I.
                         Physical/Chemical aspects,II. Biologic and human health aspects.
4:40pm             Peter Nielsen, Science and the Basin Citizen

6-7:00pm          NO HOST BAR COCKTAIL HOUR
7-9:00pm          BANQUET--SPEAKER James Posewitz, Special Assistant to the director, 
                         Montana Dept. Fish, Wildlife and Parks--Milestones of  Environmental Progress.

Poster and Electronic Media Session (1-3:00pm)
A. Stephens, UM, G. Miller and T. Hunter, City of Missoula--Effect of Phosphate Ban on Loadings from the Missoula Sewage Plant.
M. Bishop, UM, G. Miller and T. Hunter, City of Missoula--Evaluating Oxygen Demand from the Missoula Sewage treatment Plant.
P. Berlind, V. Watson, University of Montana--Nutrients and Algae in the Clark Fork.
L. Weeks and W. Henderson, Stone--Trends in Loadings from the Stone Pulp Mill.
Missoula City-County Health--Protection of the Missoula Sole Source Aquifer.
J. Schumaker, DNCR--Montana's Riparian Areas--A Guide to Streamline
K. Timchak, planning consultant--Missoula Riverfront Plan.
M. Kerr, Montana Water Quality Bureau--Blackfoot River Resource Investigations.
D. McGuire, Montana Water Quality Bureau consultant--Aquatic Macroinvertabrate Assemblages as Indicators of Water Quality in the Clark Fork River Basin--The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.
G. Daumiller and A. Cox, Montana State Library--Clark Fork GI System.
T. Swant, WWP Biologist--Fisheries of the Lower River Reserviors.
R. Fox, Environmental Protection Agency, J. Stiles, DHES SHWB--Clark Fork Superfund Sites.
J. Hoffland, University of Montana--Status of STARS.
J. Rokosch, University of Montana--Aquatic Insect Habitat in the Upper Clark Fork.
S. Luchessa, University of Montana--Bioavailability of P from Streamside Mine Wastes and Eroding Bank Sediments in the Upper Clark Fork.
W. Ehinger, D. Potts, University of Montana and W. Schultz, DSL--Forest
Practices and Water Quality in the Flathead Forest.
J. Carey, University of Montana--Sources of P in Gold Creek (tributary of Clark Fork).
W. Schaffer & Associates--Clark Fork Remedial Demonstration Project.
B. Hanson, Montana Dept. Fish, Wildlife and Parks--Stream Community Response to a Tailings Spill.


Symposium Participants  
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Brian Antonioli (DHES) Kevin Armstrong (UM) Ellen Axtmann (USGS)
Loren Bahls (DHES-WQB) Robert Benson Perry Berlind (UM)
Rod Berg (MTDWP) Mary Beth Bishop(UM) Gael Bissel(DFWP)
Jerry Bromensheck (UM) Barry Brown (UM) Bob Bukantis(DHES-WQB)
Susan Butkay (Bioecon) Dan Cain (USGS) Jennifer Carey (UM)
Clint Carlson (USFS) Murray Carpenter (UM) Meyer Chessim (UM)
Toneybeth Clark (Terra Data) Julie Dalsoglio (USEPA) Gerry Daumiller (MT.ST.Lib.)
John Duffield (UM) Barry Dutton (Resource Cons)  Alan English (Health Dept.)
Dennis Flath (DFWP) Mary Lou Fox (UM) Robert Fox (USEPA)
Gary Frank (DSL-Forestry) Jeanne Funsch (Env.Tox. Seattle) John Gangemi (UM)
C. Garlasco (ARCO) Wayne Hadley (MTDFWP) Barry Hansen (MTDWFP)
John Harvala Pam Hillery (USEPA) John Hoffland (EVST)
Gary Ingman (DHES-WQB) John Jarvie (MT.St.Lib) John Jourdonnais (MPC)
Greg Kennett (Land,Water Consultant) Mark Kerr (DHES-WQB) Jack Kirkley (MAS)
Kevin Kirley K. Knapton (USGS) John Lambing (USGS)
Richard Lewis (MAS) Kirk Lohman (MAS) Reed Loman (WWP)
Rocky Lundy (DSL-Forestry) Scott Luchessa (UM) Sam Luoma (USGS)
Jan Mader Neil Marsh (EPA) Scott Mason (Hydrometrics)
Dan McGuire (McGuire consultant) Jack McGuire (MAS) Tony Melone (ENSR)
Ross Miller (UM) Johnnie Moore (UM) Richard Moy (DNRC)
David Nimick (USGS) Del Nimmo (NPS) Jay Norton (Msl.Co.Cons.Dist)
Bill Olsen (USEPA) Keith Olsen (Mt. Tech) JJ Otoole (CFC)
Glen Phillips (DFWP) John Potts (MAS) Judy Reese (EVST)
Tom Reid (DHES-WQB) Dudley Reiser (EA Engineering) Peter Rice (UM)
Tom Ring (DNRC) Frank Rives (CFC) Dwayne Robertson
Jim Rokosch (UM) Wm. Schafer (Schafer & Assoc.) Dan Schafer (Hydrometrics)
Joan Schumaker (DNRC) Fred Shewman (DHES-WQB) Mike Snavely
Liter Spence (DFWP) Ron Spoon (DFWP) Andrea Stephens (UM)
Sam Stephenson (SRCO) David Suhr (ASARCO) Tim Swant (Wash. Water Power)
Gary Swant (Powell High School) Joyce Tsuji (Env. Tox. Intern. Seattle) Karl Uhlig (CFC)
Doug Vulcan Vicki Watson (UM) Larry Weeks (Stoner Container)
Jerry Wells (DFWP) Diane Welty Karen Wilson (UM)
Dan Woodward (USFWS) Dennis Workman (DFWP)  

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We wish to thank the following reviewers for their assistance:

John Bergstrom, University of Georgia
Max Bothwell, National Hydrology Research Institute, Saskatoon
Kevin Boyle, University of Maine, Orono, Maine
Edward Brooks, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, MA.
Larry Brown, Montana Water Quality Bureau, Helena, now with Plum Creek Timber, Columbia Falls, MT.
Robert Bukantis, Montana Water Quality Bureau, Helena, MT.
Steven Canton, Chadwick and Associates, Littleton, CO.
Ted Duaime, Montana Tech, Butte, Montana
Robert Fox, Environmental Protection Agency, Helena, MT>
Doug Mitchell, Chadwick and Associates, Littleton, CO.
Mick DeGraeve, Battelle Great Lakes Environmental Center, 
    Traverse City, MI.
Caroline Johns, St. Lawrence University, Canton, New York
John Loomis, University of California at Davis
Arthur McComb, Murdock University, Western Australia
David Mount, ENSR, FT. Collins, Colorado
Donald Mount, Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, Minnesota
Howard Peavey, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana
David Rades, Integrates Paper Services, INC. Appleton, Wisconsin
Andrew Sheldon, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana
John Sonderegger, Montana Tech, Butte, Montana
Jack Stanford, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana
Vance Thurston, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana
Terri Webster, Montana Dept. State Lands

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"There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesome returns of conjecture out of such trifling investments of fact." (Mark Twain)
    Most people who live, work and play in the Clark Fork River watershed know little or nothing about scientific inquiry on our water quality and aquatic resources. But whether we know it or not, we all benefit from the work of those who strive to improve our understanding of the river and its environs, many of which are detailed in these symposium proceedings.
    The Clark Fork's fish, bugs, algae and water quality have been probed, dissected, shocked, sampled, strained, diluted and filtered by hundreds, perhaps thousands of investigators during the decade of the 1980's. Millions of dollars have been spent by government agencies and companies responsible for pollution of the river, An impressive body of knowledge has been acquired by these collective efforts since the pulp mill at Frenchtown proposed to expend its effluent discharge in 1984.
    Even Twain might be impressed. With such an impressive investment of fact, surely we could reap a wholesome harvest of conjecture.
    We've invested a great deal in the science reported in these symposium proceedings. This should continue. But, unfortunately, science seldom provides absolute answers to all questions. Often the most valuable scientific investigations will raise as many questions as it answers.
    We would be naive to expect too much from our science.
    Most of the water resource issues on the Clark Fork will be settled, in the final analysis, through a combination of scientific investigation and politics. But without the science, we will be ill-equipped to make any sort of sound decisions; political, emotional or otherwise, on how to protect water quality in the river.
   If you ask people who live here what they want, you'll almost always hear that folks want action. Most will agree we should understand what our actions will achieve before we take them, but they want action nonetheless.
    We need careful, thoughtful investigation. We need to understand. Nut studies are not acceptable replacement for action.
    The public wants action to make things better while we study, or even to just keep things from getting worse. This presents a stiff challenge to all of us involved with protecting the river, whether we represent government, industry or environmental groups. We don't have all the answers, we'll never get all the answers, but the public wants us to make progress based on what we know today.
    It's a tough position to be in. We still always wish we knew more. We will continuously be second guessed. We know we will make mistakes. Nut if we have the courage to act on our convictions, to use the knowledge we have, to use our common sense when all else fails, we can make outstanding progress.
    We've proven this to be true on the Clark Fork by restricting phosphorous discharge from industry, banning the sale of phosphorous detergents, taking actions to prevent fish kills, stabilizing tailings ponds and even removing mine wastes from the floodplain.
    This river is on the mend. Our efforts must go on, while we continue our careful scientific investigation to guide our actions as much as possible. The stream is recovering, and can probably be restored to one of the finest aquatic ecosystems on the continent. We can make it work, and we can make it last. But we must continue to study, and we must continue to act.
    A friend shared this old, anonymous prayer with me recently. I think it applies to the matter at hand:
                God grant me the courage to change what I can change;
                The serenity to accept what I cannot change;
                And the wisdom to know the difference.
I would modify those words of wisdom only slightly for those who look to science to guide their actions on behalf of the Clark Fork River:
                God grant me the courage to act when I have enough information;
                The serenity to wait when I don't
                Ant the wisdom to know the difference.

Peter Neilson
Clark Fork Coalition