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Michael Minnick

Minnick, Michael

Professor

Phone: (406) 243-5972

Office: HEALTH SCIENCES 509

Email: mike.minnick@mso.umt.edu

Current Office Hours

I have an open door policy- students may come by any time.



Education

B.S. Walla Walla College, 1982 M.S. Walla Walla College, 1984 Ph.D. Washington State University, 1987



Courses Taught

· Medical Bacteriology and Mycology (BIOM 402)

· Medical Bacteriology and Mycology Laboratory (BIOM 403)

· General Microbiology (BIOM 360)

· General Microbiology Laboratory (BIOM 361)

· Microbial Pathogenesis (Micb 540)



Teaching Experience

Washington State University-

· General Microbiology Laboratory (Micb 201)

Walla Walla College-

· General Biology (Biol 100)

The University of Montana-

· Medical Bacteriology and Mycology (BIOM 402)

· Medical Bacteriology and Mycology Laboratory (BIOM 403)

· General Microbiology (BIOM 360)

· General Microbiology Laboratory (BIOM 361)

· Medical Microbiology (Micb 302)

· Advanced Molecular Biology Lab (Micb 499)

· Elementary Medical Microbiology (Micb 106)

· Microbial Pathogenesis (Micb 540)

· Immunology (Micb 410)

· Immunology Laboratory (Micb 411)

· Advanced Immunology (Micb 502; graduate course)

· Montana NIH BRIN Molecular Biology Workshops, 2002, 2003



Research Interests

Ten Bartonella species are arthropod-borne, emerging infectious agents of human disease and are responsible for severe illnesses of the circulatory system (e.g., bacillary angiomatosis, hepatis peliosis, endocarditis, etc.). Fourteen additional Bartonella species infect a variety of other mammals including rodents, cats, dogs, livestock and wildlife. Our lab studies molecular and genetic aspects of the Bartonella – human and Bartonella - arthropod vector interfaces, with special emphasis on elucidating mechanisms contributing to: a) parasitism of erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells, b) iron acquisition, c) pathological angiogenesis during infection and d) persistence within the human host and arthropod vector. Data from these studies are expected to contribute towards eventual control strategies.

Our lab also works with Coxiella burnetii- one of the most infectious bacterial pathogens known. Research on Coxiella focuses on understanding its complex developmental cycle, its unusual genetic elements (introns, ribozymes, inteins) and marked persistence in the environment. We are also developing novel approaches for treating Q fever. This research is designed to counter the potential bioterrorist threat imposed by the illegitimate use of C. burnetii. 



Field of Study

Microbial pathogenesis



Selected Publications

SELECTED RECENT PUBLICATIONS-    

Parrow, N.L., J. Abbott, A.R. Lockwood, J.M. Battisti, and M.F. Minnick. 2009. Function, regulation, and transcriptional organization of the hemin utilization locus of Bartonella quintana. Infect. Immun. 77:307-316.

Raghavan, R., L.D. Hicks, and M.F. Minnick. 2009. A unique group I intron in Coxiella burnetii is a natural splice mutant. J. Bacteriol. 191:4044-4046.

 Minnick, M.F. and J.M. Battisti. 2009. Invited author. Pestilence, persistence and pathogenicity: infection strategies of Bartonella. Future Microbiol. 4:743-758.

Raghavan, R., and M.F. Minnick. 2009. Group I introns and inteins: disparate origins, but convergent parasitic strategies. J. Bacteriol. 191:6193-6202.

Hicks, L.D., R. Raghavan, J.M. Battisti, and M.F. Minnick. 2010. A DNA-binding peroxiredoxin of Coxiella burnetii is involved in countering oxidative stress during exponential-phase growth. J. Bacteriol. 192:2077-2084.   

Minnick, M.F., L.D. Hicks, J.M. Battisti and R. Raghavan. 2010. Pentamidine inhibits Coxiella burnetii growth and 23S rRNA intron splicing in vitro. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 36:380-382.

Battisti, J.M, L.D. Hicks and M.F. Minnick. 2011. A unique Coxiella burnetii lipoprotein involved in metal-binding (LimB). Microbiology 157:966-976.

Hicks, L.D., I. Warrier, R. Raghavan, and M.F. Minnick. 2011. Ribozyme stability, exon skipping and potential role for RNA helicase in group I intron splicing by Coxiella burnetii. J. Bacteriol. 193:5292-5299.

Wright, B.E., K. Schmidt, A.T. Hunt. J.S. Lodmell, M.F. Minnick and D. Reschke. 2011. The roles of transcription and genotoxins underlying p53 mutagenesis in vivo. Carcinogenesis. 32:1559-1567.

Minnick, M.F. and R. Raghavan. 2011. Invited author. Genetics of Coxiella burnetii: on the path of specialization. Future Microbiol. 6:1297-1314.

Wright, B.E., K.H. Schmidt, A.T. Hunt, D.K. Reschke, and M.F. Minnick. 2011. The evolution of coordinated mutagenesis and somatic hypermutation in VH5. Mol. Immunol. 49:537-548.

Wright, B.E., K.H. Schmidt and M.F. Minnick. 2013. Kinetic models reveal the in vivo mechanisms of mutagenesis in microbes and man. Mutat. Res. 752:129-137.

Parrow, N.L., R.E. Fleming and M.F. Minnick. 2013. Sequestration and scavenging: iron in infection. Infect. Immun. 81:3503-3514.

Minnick, M.F., B.E. Anderson, A. Lima, J.M. Battisti, P.G. Lawyer and R.J.Birtles. 2014. Oroya fever and verruga peruana- bartonelloses unique to South America. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. In press.



Publications

BOOK CHAPTERS-

1. Spence, K.D. and M.F. Minnick. 1992. Invited author. Bacterial challenge and significance of an inducible protein (M13) in coagulation and cell agglutination in Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera). pp. 273-287. In: Immunology of Insects and Other Arthropods. (A.P. Gupta, ed.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

2.  Mallavia, L.P. and M.F. Minnick. 1995. Invited author. Coxiella burnetii as an etiologic agent. pp. 70-84. In: Q Fever  in Humans and Animals. (Z. Anusz, ed.) Skrypty Akademii Rolniczo Press, Olsztyn, Poland.

3. Minnick, M.F. 1997. Invited author. Virulence determinants of Bartonella bacilliformis. pp. 197-211.  In: Rickettsial Infections and Immunity.  (B. Anderson, M. Bendinelli and H. Friedman, eds.)  Plenum Press, NY.

4. Fournier, P-E., M.F. Minnick and D. Raoult. 1999.  Transformation of Bartonella quintana to green fluorescent protein expression by electroporation. pp. 38-42. In: Rickettsia and Rickettsial Diseases at the Turn of the Third Millenium. (D. Raoult and P. Brouqui, eds.) Elsevier Press, Amsterdam.

5. Minnick, M.F. and B. Anderson. 2000. Invited author. Bartonella interactions with host cells. pp. 97-124. In: Subcellular Biochemistry: Bacterial Invasion Into Eukaryotic Cells. Vol. 33. (J. Hacker and T. Oelschlaeger, eds.) Plenum Press, NY.

6. Minnick, M.F.  2001. Invited author. Bartonella. Chapter 99, pp.2115-2136. In: Molecular Medical Microbiology. (M. Sussman, ed.)  Academic Press, London.

7. Minnick, M.F. and B. E. Anderson. 2001. Invited author. The Genus Bartonella. In: THE PROKARYOTES: an Evolving Electronic Resource for the Microbiological Community, 3rd Edition (latest update release 3.6) (M. Dworkin et al., eds.), Springer-Verlag, NY.

8. Walker D. H., C. Maguiña and M.F. Minnick. 2005. Invited author. Bartonelloses. Chapter 44. In: Tropical Infectious Diseases: Principles, Pathogens, and Practice, 2nd Edition. (R.L.   Guerrant, D.H. Walker, and P.F. Weller, eds.) Elsevier Press.

9. Battisti, J.M. and M.F. Minnick. 2008.  Invited author. Laboratory Maintenance of Bartonella quintana. In: Current Protocols in Microbiology.  Unit 3C.1.1-3C.1.13. John Wiley & Sons, NJ.

10. Minnick, M.F. and R. Raghavan. 2012. Invited author. Developmental biology of Coxiella burnetii. In: Coxiella burnetii: Recent Advances and New Perspectives in Research of the Q Fever Agent (R. Toman, R.A. Heinzen, J.L. Mege, J.E. Samuel, eds.) Springer, Netherlands. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 984:231-248.

11. Minnick, M.F. and B.E. Anderson. 2014. Invited author. Bartonella. Chapter 117. In: Molecular Medical Microbiology 2nd Edition. (Tang et al., eds.)  Academic Press, London. In press.

12. Marrie, T.J., M.F. Minnick, Julien Textoris, Christian Capo, Jean-Louis Mege. 2014. Invited author. Coxiella. Chapter 118. In: Molecular Medical Microbiology 2nd Edition. (Tang et al., eds.)  Academic Press, London. In press.

 

RESEARCH ARTICLES-

 1. Minnick, M.F., R. A. Rupp and K. D. Spence.  l986.  A bacterial-induced lectin which triggers hemocyte coagulation in Manduca sexta.  Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. l37:729-735.

 2. Minnick, M.F., and K. D. Spence.  l988.  Tissue site and modification of a bacteria-induced coagulation protein from Manduca sexta.  Insect Biochem. l8:637-644.

 3. Minnick, M. F., R. A. Heinzen, M. E. Frazier and L. P. Mallavia.  l990.  Characterization and expression of the cbbE'gene of Coxiella burnetii.  J. Gen. Microbiol.  136:1099-1107.

 4. Minnick, M.F., R. A. Heinzen, R. Douthardt, L. P. Mallavia and M. E. Frazier.  1990.  Analysis of QpRS-specific sequences from Coxiella burnetii.  Ann. New York Acad. Sci.  590:514-522.

 5. Mallavia, L. P., L. L. Whiting, M.F. Minnick, R. A. Heinzen, D. Reschke, M. Foreman, O. G. Baca and M. E. Frazier.  1990.  Strategy for differentiation of Coxiella burnetii strains using polymerase chain reaction.  Ann. New York Acad. Sci.  590:572-581.

 6. Minnick, M. F., C. Small, M. E. Frazier and L. P. Mallavia.  1991.  Analysis of the cbhE' plasmid gene from acute disease-causing isolates of Coxiella burnetii. Gene 103:113-118.

 7. Minnick, M. F., R. A. Heinzen, D. K. Reschke, M. E. Frazier and L. P. Mallavia.  l991.  A plasmid-encoded surface protein found in chronic isolates of Coxiella burnetii. Infect. Immun. 59:4735-4739.

 8. Minnick, M. F., C. Small, M. E. Frazier and L. P. Mallavia. 1991.  Analysis of strain-specific plasmid sequences from Coxiella burnetii.  Acta Virol. 35:497-502.

 9. Minnick, M. F., L. C. Stillwell, J. M. Heineman and G. L. Stiegler. 1992.  A highly repetitive DNA sequence possibly unique to canids. Gene 110:235-238.

10. Spence, K.D., J.E. Karlinsey, T.R. Kyriakides, C.S. Patil, and M.F. Minnick. 1992. Regulation and synthesis of selected bacteria-induced proteins in Manduca sexta. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 22:321-331.

11. Minnick, M.F., and D.C. Scherer. 1993.  Cloning and sequence analysis of a hemolysin-encoding gene from Pseudomonas paucimobilis. Gene 130:57-63.

12. Minnick, M.F. 1993. Nucleotide sequence of the 5S ribosomal RNA gene of Bartonella bacilliformis. Nucleic Acids Res. 21:1036.

13. Minnick, M.F. 1993. Characterization of the fMet initiator tRNA gene of Bartonella bacilliformis. Gene 131:151-152.

14. Minnick, M.F. and G.L. Stiegler. 1993. Nucleotide sequence and comparison of the 5S ribosomal RNA genes of Rochalimaea henselae, R. quintana, and Brucella abortus. Nucleic Acids Res. 21:2518.

15. Scherer, D.C., I. DeBuron-Connors, and M.F. Minnick. 1993. Characterization of Bartonella bacilliformis flagella and effect of antiflagellin antibodies on invasion of human erythrocytes. Infect. Immun. 61:4962-4971.

16.  Minnick, M.F. 1994. Identification of outer membrane proteins of Bartonella bacilliformis.  Infect. Immun. 62:2644-2648.

17. Minnick, M.F., Strange, J.C., and K.F. Williams. 1994. Characterization of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer of Bartonella bacilliformis. Gene 143:149-150.

18. Grasseschi, H.A. and M.F. Minnick. 1994. Transformation of Bartonella bacilliformis by electroporation. Can. J. Microbiol. 40:782-786.

19. Mitchell, S.J. and M.F. Minnick. 1995. Characterization of a two-gene locus from Bartonella bacilliformis associated with the ability to invade human erythrocytes. Infect. Immun. 63:1552-1562.

20. Minnick, M.F., S.J. Mitchell, S.J. McAllister, and J. M. Battisti. 1995. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 23S ribosomal RNA-encoding gene of Bartonella bacilliformis. Gene 162:75-79.

21. Minnick, M.F., S.J. Mitchell, and S. J. McAllister. 1996. Invited author. Cell entry and the pathogenesis of Bartonella infections. Trends Microbiol. 4:343-347.

22. Wright, B.E., and M.F. Minnick.  1997. Reversion rates in a leuB auxotroph of Escherichia coli K12 correlate with ppGpp levels during exponential growth. Microbiology 143:847-854.

23. Mitchell, S.J. and M.F. Minnick. 1997.  A carboxy-terminal processing protease gene is located immediately upstream of the invasion-associated locus from Bartonella bacilliformis. Microbiology 143:1221-1233.

24. Mitchell, S.J. and M.F. Minnick.  1997. Cloning, functional expression, and complementation analysis of an inorganic pyrophosphatase from Bartonella bacilliformis.  Can. J. Microbiol. 43:734-743.

25. Minnick, M.F. and K.D. Barbian. 1997. Identification of Bartonella using PCR; genus- and species-specific primer sets. J. Microbiol. Methods 31:51-57.

26. Battisti, J.M, L.S. Smitherman, D.S. Samuels and M.F. Minnick. 1998.  Mutations in Bartonella bacilliformis gyrB confer resistance to coumermycin A­1. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:2906-2913.

27. Cartwright, J.L, P. Britton, M.F. Minnick, and A.G. McLennan. 1999.  The ialA invasion gene of Bartonella bacilliformis encodes a (di)nucleoside polyphosphate hydrolase of the MutT motif family and has homologs in other invasive bacteria. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 256:474-479.

28. Battisti, J.M., and M.F. Minnick. 1999. Development of a system for genetic manipulation of Bartonella bacilliformis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:3441-3448.

29. Barbian, K.D. and M.F. Minnick. 2000. A bacteriophage-like particle from Bartonella bacilliformis. Microbiology 146:599-609.

30. Carroll, J.C., S.A. Coleman, L.S. Smitherman and M.F. Minnick. 2000. Hemin-binding surface protein from Bartonella quintana. Infect. Immun. 68:6750-6757.

31. Fournier, P.E., M.F. Minnick, H. Lepidi and D. Raoult. 2001. Experimental model of human body louse infection using green fluorescent protein-expressing Bartonella quintana. Infect. Immun. 69:1876-1879.

32. Coleman, S.A. and M.F. Minnick. 2001. Establishing a direct role for the invasion-associated locus B protein of Bartonella bacilliformis in erythrocyte parasitism.  Infect. Immun. 69:4373-4381.

33. Minnick, M.F., Z.R. Wilson, L.S. Smitherman, and D.S. Samuels. 2003. gyrA mutations in ciprofloxacin-resistant Bartonella bacilliformis strains obtained in vitro. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:383-386.

34. Minnick, M.F., K.N. Sappington, L.S. Smitherman, S.G.E.Andersson, O. Karlberg and J.A. Carroll. 2003. A five-member gene family of Bartonella quintana. Infect. Immun. 71:814-821.

35. Coleman, S.A. and M.F. Minnick. 2003. Differential expression of the invasion-associated locus B (ialB) gene of Bartonella bacilliformis in response to environmental cues. Microb. Pathogen. 34:179-186.

36. Minnick, M.F., L.S. Smitherman and D.S. Samuels. 2003. Mitogenic effect of Bartonella bacilliformis on human vascular endothelial cells and involvement of GroEL. Infect. Immun. 71:6933-6942.

37. Wright, B.E., K.H. Schmidt and M.F. Minnick. 2004. A mechanism by which transcription can regulate somatic hypermutation. Genes Immun. 5:176-182.

38. Callison, J.A., J.M. Battisti, Kate N. Sappington, L.S. Smitherman and M.F. Minnick. 2005. Characterization and expression analysis of the groESL operon of Bartonella bacilliformis. Gene 359:53-62.

39. Smitherman, L.S. and M.F. Minnick. 2005. Bartonella bacilliformis GroEL: effect on growth of human vascular endothelial cells in infected co-cultures. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1063:286-298.

40. Battisti, J.M., K.N. Sappington, L.S. Smitherman, N.L. Parrow and M.F. Minnick. 2006. Environmental signals generate a differential and coordinated expression of the heme receptor gene family of Bartonella quintana. Infect. Immun. 74:3251-3261.

41. Boonjakuakul, J.K., H.L. Gerns, Y.-T. Chen, L.D. Hicks, M.F. Minnick, S.E. Dixon, S.C. Hall and J.E. Koehler. 2007. Proteomic and immunoblot analyses of Bartonella quintana total membrane proteins identify antigens recognized by sera from infected patients. Infect. Immun. 75:2548-2561.

42. Battisti, J.M. K.N. Sappington, L.S. Smitherman, N.L. Parrow, R. Raghavan, and M.F. Minnick. 2007. Transcriptional regulation of the heme binding protein gene family of Bartonella quintana is accomplished by a novel promoter element and iron response regulator (Irr) Infect. Immun. 75:4373-4385.

43. Raghavan, R., S.R. Miller, L.D. Hicks and M.F. Minnick. 2007. The unusual 23S rRNA gene of Coxiella burnetii: two self-splicing group I introns flank a 34-base-pair exon and one element lacks the canonical omega G.  J. Bacteriol. 189:6572-6579.

44. Wright, B.E., K.H. Schmidt, M.F. Minnick and N. Davis. 2008. I. VH gene transcription creates stabilized secondary structures for coordinated mutagenesis during somatic hypermutation. Molec. Immunol. 45:3589-3599.

45. Wright, B.E., K.H. Schmidt, N. Davis, A.T. Hunt, and M.F. Minnick. 2008. II. Correlations between secondary structure stability and mutation frequency during somatic hypermutation. Molec. Immunol. 45:3600-3608.

46. Raghavan, R., L.D. Hicks, and M.F. Minnick. 2008. Toxic introns and parasitic intein in Coxiella burnetii: legacies of a promiscuous past. J. Bacteriol. 190:5934-5943.

47. Parrow, N.L., J. Abbott, A.R. Lockwood, J.M. Battisti, and M.F. Minnick. 2009. Function, regulation, and transcriptional organization of the hemin utilization locus of Bartonella quintana. Infect. Immun. 77:307-316.

48. Raghavan, R., L.D. Hicks, and M.F. Minnick. 2009. A unique group I intron in Coxiella burnetii is a natural splice mutant. J. Bacteriol. 191:4044-4046.

49. Minnick, M.F. and J.M. Battisti. 2009. Invited author. Pestilence, persistence and pathogenicity: infection strategies of Bartonella. Future Microbiol. 4:743-758.

50. Raghavan, R., and M.F. Minnick. 2009. Group I introns and inteins: disparate origins, but convergent parasitic strategies. J. Bacteriol. 191:6193-6202.

51. Hicks, L.D., R. Raghavan, J.M. Battisti, and M.F. Minnick. 2010. A DNA-binding peroxiredoxin of Coxiella burnetii is involved in countering oxidative stress during exponential-phase growth. J. Bacteriol. 192:2077-2084.   

52. Minnick, M.F., L.D. Hicks, J.M. Battisti and R. Raghavan. 2010. Pentamidine inhibits Coxiella burnetii growth and 23S rRNA intron splicing in vitro. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 36:380-382.

53. Battisti, J.M, L.D. Hicks and M.F. Minnick. 2011. A unique Coxiella burnetii lipoprotein involved in metal-binding (LimB). Microbiology 157:966-976.

54. Hicks, L.D., I. Warrier, R. Raghavan, and M.F. Minnick. 2011. Ribozyme stability, exon skipping and potential role for RNA helicase in group I intron splicing by Coxiella burnetii. J. Bacteriol. 193:5292-5299.

55. Wright, B.E., K. Schmidt, A.T. Hunt. J.S. Lodmell, M.F. Minnick and D. Reschke. 2011. The roles of transcription and genotoxins underlying p53 mutagenesis in vivo. Carcinogenesis. 32:1559-1567.

56. Minnick, M.F. and R. Raghavan. 2011. Invited author. Genetics of Coxiella burnetii: on the path of specialization. Future Microbiol. 6:1297-1314.

57. Wright, B.E., K.H. Schmidt, A.T. Hunt, D.K. Reschke, and M.F. Minnick. 2011. The evolution of coordinated mutagenesis and somatic hypermutation in VH5. Mol. Immunol. 49:537-548.

58. Wright, B.E., K.H. Schmidt and M.F. Minnick. 2013. Kinetic models reveal the in vivo mechanisms of mutagenesis in microbes and man. Mutat. Res. 752:129-137.

59. Parrow, N.L., R.E. Fleming and M.F. Minnick. 2013. Sequestration and scavenging: iron in infection. Infect. Immun. 81:3503-3514.

60. Minnick, M.F., B.E. Anderson, A. Lima, J.M. Battisti, P.G. Lawyer and R.J.Birtles. Oroya fever and verruga peruana- bartonelloses unique to South America. Submitted to PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis.



Affiliations

American Society for Microbiology

American Society for Rickettsiology (past president)



Professional Experience

9/01-present    Professor, Division of Biological Sciences, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT

9/00-9/06         Director, Murdock Molecular Biology Facility, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT

1/03-7/06,        Assistant Dean, Division of Biological Sciences, The University of Montana, Missoula

7/08-6/10         Assistant Dean, Division of Biological Sciences, The University of Montana, Missoula

1/98-9/00         Associate Director, Murdock Molecular Biology Facility, The University     of Montana, Missoula, MT

8/96-8/01         Associate Professor, Division of Biological Sciences, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT

8/91- 8/96        Assistant Professor, Division of Biological Sciences, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT   

6/90 - 7/91       Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Molecular Biology, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA, with Dr. Marvin E. Frazier

l0/87 - 6/90      Postdoctoral Research Associate, Department of Microbiology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, with Dr. Louis P. Mallavia

8/88 - 5/89       Instructor, Department of Microbiology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA

8/85 - 5/87       Graduate Teaching Assistant, Department of Microbiology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA

8/84 - 5/85       Graduate Research Assistant, Department of Microbiology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA

3/84 - 6/84       Instructor, Dept. of Biology, Walla Walla College, College Place, WA

l982 - l984       Graduate Teaching Assistant, Department of Biology, Walla Walla College, College Place, WA

l98l - l982         Undergraduate Teaching Assistant, Department of Biology, Walla Walla College, College Place, WA



International Experience

Consultant to Peruvian National Institutes of Health for development of a vaccine against Carrion's disease.



Honors / Awards

Editorial Board, Fine Focus, 2014-present

Outstanding Faculty Advising Award (for undergraduate advising), The University of Montana, 2012

Student Affairs, Faculty Recognition Award, UM, 2012

Honorary Member, Gold Key International Honour Society, 2011-

Editorial Review Board, Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 2010-present

Ad Hoc Reviewer, NIH-NIAID; Bacterial Pathogenesis (ZRG1), 2009

Editorial Board, Journal of Microbiological Methods, 2007-present

Publication selected for Faculty of 1000 Biology, 2007 (Battisti et al., 2007)

Student Affairs Faculty Recognition Award, The University of Montana, 2007

Ad Hoc Reviewer, NIH-NIAID; Topics in Microbial Pathogenesis (ZRG1), 2006

Ad Hoc Reviewer, NIH-NIAID; Bacterial Pathogenesis (ZRG1), 2005

Ad Hoc Reviewer, NIH-NIAID; Bacteriology & Mycology I (BM1), 2004

Ad Hoc Reviewer, NIH-NIAID; Viral and Eukaryotic Pathogens (ZRG1), 2004

Ad Hoc Reviewer, NIH-NIAID; Biodefense & Emerging Infectious Disease (ZAI1), 2003

Ad Hoc Reviewer, NIH-NIAID; Illegitimate Use of Bacterial Pathogens (ZAI1), 2001

Ad Hoc Reviewer, NIH-NIAID; Bacteriology & Mycology I (BM1), 2000

Faculty Merit Awards, UM- 1994, 1995, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2004, 2008, 2010, 2012

Outstanding Faculty Recognition Award, UM Greek Life, 2003

Tenure, The University of Montana, 1997

Winston and Helen Cox Teaching Award, The University of Montana, 1995

Department of Energy (NORCUS) Postdoctoral Fellowship, 1990-1991

Washington State University Competitive Summer Research Assistantship, 1987

Victor Burke Memorial Fellowship, Washington State University, l985, l986

Dean's Award for Academic Excellence, Walla Walla College, l984

Graduation Cum Laude, Walla Walla College,  l982

Outstanding Biology Graduate, Walla Walla College, l982



Hobbies

Fly fishing

Fly tying

Rod building



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