Just as he put Gogarty into the novel in the fictional person of Buck Mulligan, Joyce included himself as "Stephen Dedalus," an autobiographical persona whom he had introduced in his first published novel, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.

JH 2011

Photograph of James Joyce, taken by C. P. Curran ca. 1904. Reproduced by Ellmann, courtesy of C. P. Curran. Ellmann reports that Joyce, asked what he was thinking when Curran took the photo, replied, "I was wondering would he lend me five shillings."